I haeddu dyrchafiad dim ond bod yn sylwgar, deallus a sobor sydd raid: Cyfarwyddiadau ar gyfer Heddlu Sir Morgannwg, 1841

Ym mis Tachwedd 1841, wrth i Heddlu Morgannwg fentro allan i faes y gad am y tro cyntaf, rhoddwyd copi o’r Instructions for the Glamorganshire Constabulary Force i bob un ohonynt. Yn dri deg tri tudalen o hyd ac wedi’i argraffu fel ei fod yn ffitio’n dwt mewn poced, roedd y llyfryn yn rhoi ‘cyfarwyddiadau’ ar gyfer pob un o’r tair rheng – uwch-arolygydd, siarsiant a chwnstabl. Mae copi o’r llyfryn gwreiddiol ar gael yn Archifau Morgannwg. Mae’n ddiddorol iawn gan ei fod yn dweud wrthym am ddyddiau cynnar plismona a’r newidiadau yng nghymdeithas yn sgil diwydiannu.

instructions_edited

Mae llawer iawn o’r llyfryn yn cynnwys cyngor syml i Gwnstabliaid, gyda phwyslais ar y gobaith o gael dyrchafiad am wneud gwaith da.

…to merit promotion it is only necessary to be attentive, intelligent and sober. Diligence is always in his power; the necessary intelligence is easily acquired; and to be sober requires only that firm resolution never to enter a public house, or accept liquor from any person whomsoever.

Roedd meddwdod yn amlwg yn bryder mawr, a dywedwyd wrth y pedwar Uwch-arolygydd bod rhaid iddynt sicrhau bod pob tafarnwr yn gwybod bod ….. rhoi lloches i Blismyn yn ystod oriau gwaith….  yn drosedd. O’r dechrau, dywedodd y Capten Charles Napier, y Prif Gwnstabl, y byddai cwnstabliaid sy’n cael eu dal yn feddw ar ddyletswydd yn cael eu diswyddo ar unwaith.

Nothing denigrates a Police Officer so much as drunkenness, nothing is so soon observed by the public, and nothing exalts the character of a Constable so much as the steady and uniform refusal of liquor when offered to him, even with those who at the moment may be offended at his determination.

Hefyd, dywedwyd wrth y cwnstabliaid y byddent yn wynebu sarhad a chythruddion niferus ac na ddylent byth ddangos…. dig na gwylltineb… a chydnabod bod y fath bethau’n rhan o’r swydd.

When a Constable exhibits good temper he will never want either the approbation or the assistance of every respectable spectator. On the contrary, any want of temper is almost certain to expose him to disapprobation and insult, and must deprive him of that presence of mind which is so essential for his own protection and the reputation of the Service.

Wrth edrych ar y rhestr o droseddau yr oedd rhaid i’r Cwnstabliaid ddelio â nhw, mae’r rhan fwyaf yr un mor berthnasol heddiw, gan gynnwys llofruddiaeth, torri i mewn i dai, lladrad, ymosod a derbyn nwyddau wedi’u dwyn. Fodd bynnag, roedd nifer ohonynt yn nodweddiadol o’r oes, ac yn adlewyrchiad o gymdeithas yng nghanol y ddeunawfed ganrif. Er enghraifft, roedd y rhestr o is-ddeddfau yn cynnwys gweithgareddau a oedd yn destun cosb:

No swine sty or privy to be emptied, or night soil, etc to be removed except between 12 at night and 5 in the morning….

No cattle to be slaughtered or dressed in any street….

Blacksmiths and persons using a forge and having a door or opening to the front of any street to have the same closed within half an hour after sunset, to prevent the light shining upon the street….

No person to shoe, bleed or farry any horse or cattle in any street except in case of accident.

Er syndod efallai, roedd y rhestr yn cynnwys:

No carriage to be washed or repaired in any street, except in case of accidents.

Dyma gyfnod cythrwfl Merched Beca a rhybuddiwyd Cwnstabliaid bod troseddau yr ystyrid yn ffeloniaeth yn cynnwys:

Maliciously throwing down any toll-bar or fence that belonging to any turnpike gate.

Hefyd, nid oedd yn rhywbeth anghyffredin mewn ardaloedd arfordirol i longau gael eu denu ar y creigiau fel y gellid eu hysbeilio a dywedwyd wrth y Cwnstabliaid i chwilio am unrhyw un:

Exhibiting any false light with intent to  bring any ship into danger, or maliciously doing anything tending to the destruction of any vessel in distress, or any goods belonging thereto, or impeding any person endeavouring to save his life from such ship or vessel.

Roedd y pwyslais ar fod yn drwsiadus bob amser, ac roedd y Cwnstabliaid yn gwisgo siacedi glas â chynffon gwennol arnynt a llodrau gwyn yn yr haf. Eto mae’n rhaid bod cynnal y safonau yn dipyn o her ar brydiau, o ystyried bod:

If it rains the Constable on duty must keep clear the eyes of the sewers.

Byddai strydoedd trefi mawrion wedi bod yn wahanol iawn yn y 1840au ac mae rhyw syniad o’r ffordd y byddent yn edrych i’w gael yn y canllaw ar ‘Dyletswydd Dydd’:

He is to remove all nuisances, prevent the foot-walk from being obstructed in any way whatever, and either drive away, or take away into custody, all beggars, ballad singers, oyster sellers and persons selling fruit or other articles in baskets.

Roedd yr heddlu hefyd yn chwarae rhan bwysig yn y gwaith o ddelio a thanau. Y cwnstabliaid oedd yn gyfrifol am seinio rhybudd a hefyd am roi gwybod i’r orsaf dân.

If he has to run and feels tired, he is to send forward a fresh Constable when about half way; but still he is to keep on his course as fast as possible, lest the message should miscarry.

Roedd hefyd cyfarwyddiadau penodol ar beth y dylid ei achub:

If it is a counting house or warehouse the first things to be saved are the books and papers.

Does dim dwywaith, fodd bynnag, mai’r her sylweddol a wynebai’r heddlu newydd oedd plismona’r trefi diwydiannol yn Ne Cymru a oedd yn ehangu’n gyflym. O’r 34 sarsiant a chwnstabl a recriwtiwyd gan Heddlu Morgannwg ym 1841, anfonwyd 12 i weithio yn ardal Merthyr Tudful a oedd yn golygu bod yr ardaloedd gwledig, fel y dywedodd Napier ei hun, yn brin o blismyn. Yn sgil y cyfleoedd i gael gwaith yn y pyllau glo a ffowndrïau haearn, roedd trefi megis Merthyr wedi gweld eu poblogaeth yn cynyddu yn gyflym dros ben. Roedd yr Heddlu Morgannwg newydd yn wynebu her ddyddiol o ran sicrhau cyfraith a threfn mewn trefi prysur lle roedd y boblogaeth wedi bod yn gweithio’n galed, ond roedd alcohol yn rhad ac yn hawdd ei gael. Roedd y cyngor o ran delio a meddwdod yn rhyfeddol o ysgafn.

Although a Constable is always to act with firmness, he is never to interfere needlessly. When a drunken man is making his way home quietly, he is to let him pass on without speaking to him; if he is disorderly, he is to speak mildly and friendly to him, and persuade him to go home; if he needs assistance he is to help him; if he requires protection, he is to pass him without murmuring to the next Constable, who is to pass him in the same manner to the next, and so on till he is conveyed home.   

When he finds a person lying stupidly drunk he is to arouse him without any violence or uproar; if he can tell him where he lives, he is to be conveyed home; if not he is to be carried to the station.

Er bod anhrefn yn bennaf gysylltiedig â dynion, roedd llawer o ferched a merched ifanc yn cael eu cyflogi yn y diwydiannau newydd a rhybuddiwyd Cwnstabliaid y byddai’n rhaid iddynt ddelio â merched meddw neu ffraegar:

With disorderly women the Constable is to hold no communication of any sort, or under any pretence whatever. He must behave towards them with a determined sternness of manner, and never allow them to gather in crowds or on his beat, to create a noise, or to interrupt persons as they pass. By compelling them to keep moving quietly along much trouble will be avoided; and keeping them as much as possible off the streets altogether after twelve o clock at night, not only much disorder but many robberies will be prevented, for they not only rob gentlemen and drunken men themselves, but serve as an excuse for professional thieves lurking about, to plan and commit robberies. If all his stern vigilance cannot control them, he is, whenever they behave riotously or indecently, or quarrel with each other, to take them into custody, and book them for the offence of which they are guilty, and for no other.

Nodwyd eisoes bod rhai ardaloedd yn y trefi hyn lle’r oedd rhaid i’r heddlu fod yn ofalus, ac roedd y llyfryn yn cynnwys yr adran benodol hon ‘Affrays and Riots at Night’.

… when there is a serious affray or dangerous riot, he is to apprehend all persons so offending, particularly the ringleaders. As the Police are obnoxious to such parties, individual Constables must be cautious how they interfere. In most cases they had better spring their rattle, and collect assistance; then rush forward resolutely and keep together until the crowd have dispersed.

Roedd hwn yn gyngor cadarn i Gwnstabliaid gyda dim ond pastynau a chario ratl i alw am gymorth.   Daw’r llyfryn i ben gyda chyngor i Gwnstabliaid ar gyflwyno tystiolaeth gerbron yr Ynadon.

When called on, he must state his charge clearly and candidly, in as few words as possible, introducing nothing that does not bear on the charge. He must not introduce any ‘says he’, and ‘says I’, but simply state the bare facts of the case, concealing nothing that makes for or against the prisoner. When the Magistrate asks a question, the answer is to be prompt and plain, without disguise or circumlocution. He is, whilst he is before the Court, to stand up in his place, with his hands quietly by his sides.

Felly, gyda’u gwisgoedd newydd a’u llyfr poced dechreuodd dynion Heddlu Morgannwg eu swyddi newydd ym mis Tachwedd 1841. Defnyddiwyd y canllawiau yn effeithiol, fel y dangoswyd yn achos datrys byrgleriaeth Ynys Las ym mis Rhagfyr 1841, dim ond un o’r miloedd o droseddau i’w datrys gan yr heddlu dros y 175 mlynedd nesaf.

Mae copi o’r llyfr Instructions for the Glamorganshire Constabulary Force, (London, Clowes and Sons, 14 Charing Cross, 1841) ar gael yn Archifau Morgannwg, cyf: DCON38.

Tony Peters, Gwirfoddolydd Archifau Morgannwg

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